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雅思托福英语资料真题详尽-雅思6.5阅读课程教材

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发表于 2016-10-10 18:33 |显示全部楼层
试题解析:
  
题号
  
定位词
文中对应点
题目解析
27
developed/system of numbering
第二段倒数第四行As they began to settle...became paramount
As they began to settle,grow plants and herd animals,the need for a sophisticated  number system became paramount.这句话中sophisticated和number system分别与题干developed和system of numbering是近义词,因此只要找出与grow plants and herd  animals近义的选项即可,显然farming可以代替。因此正确答案为B。
28
hand signal
第三段第四行gestures/resolve confusion
根据第三段中But in real situations the number and words are often accompanied  by gestures to help resolve any confusion.和这句话之前所举的具体例子中表示数字的词有限,即题干E表达的the range  of number words was restricted,gestures又与hand signal互为近义词,所以正确答案是E。
29
seventh-century Europe/count to a certain  number
第四段中最后两句
The average person in  the seventh century in Europe was not as familiar with numbers as we are  today. In fact,to qualify as a witness in a court of law a man had to be able to  count to nine! count to nine与count to a certain number近义,a witness in a court of law与题干A的fulfill a  civic role近义。正确答案是A。
30
concept/physical objects
第五段:abstract idea/particular objects/independent of
第五段第一句说…see that a number is really an abstract idea...最后一句说…independent of the object  being referenced,the individual is...from there,to arithmetic.题干中concepts和physical objects分别与abstract idea和particular objects互为近义词。正确答案是C。
31
class of item
第六段中:the very first stages/the class of the item
根据第六段开头the very first stages和第二句中the class of the item得出正确答案是G。
LectureSeven
SUMMARY解题方法
1.看位置
n  第一大题对全篇
n  第二大题对中部
n  第三大题对后部
2.题目要求
限定字数没有?
要填的词从哪里来?
有没有告诉你大题在文章中的位置
3.扫描整个summary,专找特殊词,锁定summary在文章中的具体位置。
4. 从空出发,圈出空前空后词,确定空中要填词的
词性及词义,弄清楚空所在那句话的意思.
特别关注:
固定搭配/介词
l  Up to _大数字__
l  At least_小数字
l  Until__时间_
l  At具体时间、地点
l  During/in/over__
冠词
l  A __adj./ n__ n.
l  And____
      对动词搭配要敏感
l  Motivate _sb.__ to do sth.
l  Encourage
l  discourage
l  Prevent sb. from doing
4.5扫描词库,分析词性
l  有时可以直接用语法猜      
l  词库里的同义词和反义词中必有正确答案
WARM ó COLD
Contract óExpand
Hard ó soft
Deepó shallow
注意区分近义词:
Similar
Identical
要注意过去式和过去分词一样的动词以及第三人称单数
set set set
shut shut shut
5 返回文章刚才划定的范围,找寻空前空后词的同义词
三点注意:
·       一句对一段
·       顺序不会变
·       注意连接词
6 通读检查,注意语法 逻辑
示范例题:
Lost for Words
Many minority languages are on the danger list
  In the NativeAmerican Navajo nation, which sprawls across fourstates in the American south-west, the native language is dying. Most of its speakers are middle-aged or elderly. Although many studentstake classes in Navajo, the schools are run inEnglish. Street signs, supermarket goods andeven their own newspaper are all inEnglish.Not surprisingly, linguists doubt that any nativespeakers of Navajo will remain in a hundred years’ time.
  Navajo is far fromalone. Half the world’s 6,800 languages are likely to vanish within twogenerations - that’s one language lostevery ten days. Never before has the planet’s linguistic diversity shrunk at such a pace. At the moment, we are heading for about three or fourlanguages dominating the world,’ says Mark Pagel, an evolutionary biologist at the Universityof Reading. ‘It’s a massextinction, and whether we will ever reboundfrom the loss is difficult to know.’
  Isolation breedslinguistic diversity: as a result, the world is peppered with languages spoken by only a few people.Only250 languages have more than a million speakers, and atleast 3,000have fewer than 2,500. It is not necessarily these small languagesthat are about to disappear. Navajo is considered endangereddespite having 150,000speakers. What makes a language endangered is notjust the number of speakers, but how old theyare. If it is spoken by children it is relatively safe. The critically endangered languages are those thatare only spoken by the elderly, according toMichael Krauss, director of the AlasskNative Language Center, in Fairbanks.
  Why do peoplereject the language of their parents? It beginswith a crisis of confidence, when a smallcommunity finds itself alongside a larger, wealthier society,says Nicholas Ostler, of Britain’s Foundation for Endangered Languages, inBath. ‘People lose faith in their culture,’ he says. ‘When the next generationreaches their teens, they might not want to beinduced into the old traditions.’
  The change is notalways voluntary Quite often, governments tryto kill off a minority language by banning its use in public or discouraging its use in schools, all topromote national unity The former US policy of running Indianreservation schools in English, for example,effectively put languages such as Navajo on the dangerlist. But Salikoko Mufwene, who chairs the Linguistics Department at the University ofChicago, argues that the deadliest weapon is notgovernment policy but economic globalisation. ‘Native Americans have not lost pride in theirlanguage, but they have had to adapt to socio-economicpressures,’ he says. ‘They cannot refuse tospeak English if most commercial activity is in English.’ But are languages worth saving? At the very least, there is a loss of data for the study of languages and their evolution, which relies on comparisons betweenlanguages, both living and dead. When anunwritten and unrecorded language disappears, it is lost to science.
  Language is alsointimately bound up with culture, so it maybe difficult to preserve one without theother. ‘If a person shifts from Navajo to English, they lose something,’ Mufwene says. ‘Moreover, the loss of diversity may also deprive usof different ways of looking at the world,’ says Pagel. There is mountingevidence that learning a language producesphysiological changes in the brain. ‘Your brain and mine are different from the brain of someone whospeaks French, for instance,’ Pagel says, and this could affect ourthoughts and perceptions. ‘The patterns andconnections we make among various conceptsmay be structured by the linguistic habits of our community.’
  So despitelinguists’ best efforts, many languageswill disappear over the next century. But agrowing interest in cultural identity may prevent the direstpredictions from coming true. ‘The key to fosteringdiversity is for people to learn theirancestral tongue, as well as the dominantlanguage,’ says Doug Whalen, founder andpresident of the Endangered Language Fund in New Haven, Connecticut. ‘Most of these languageswill not survive without a large degree ofbilingualism,’ he says. In New Zealand, classes for children have slowed the erosion of Maori andrekindled interest in the language. A similarapproach in Hawaii has produced about 8,000new speakers ofPolynesian languages in the past few years. In California,‘apprentice’ programmes have providedlife support to several indigenous languages.Volunteer ‘apprentices’ pair up with oneof the last living speakers of a Native American tongue to learn a traditional skill such as basket weaving, with instructionexclusively in the endangered language. After about 300 hours of training they are generally sufficiently fluent totransmit the language to the next generation. ButMufwene says that preventing a language dying out is not the same as giving it new life by using it every day. ‘Preserving a language is more likepreserving fruits in ajar,’ he says.
  However,preservation can bring a language back from the dead.There are examples of languages that have survived in written form and then been revived by later generations. But a written form isessential for this, so the mere possibility of revivalhas led many speakers of endangered languages to developsystems of writing where none existed before.
Questions 1-4
Complete thesummary below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passagefor each answer.
Write youranswers in boxes 1-4 on your answer sheet.
There are currently approximately6,800 languages in the world. This great variety of languages came aboutlargely as a result of geographical 1 . But in today’s world, factors such asgovernment initiatives and 2 are contributing to a huge decrease in thenumber of languages. One factor which may help to ensure that some endangeredlanguages do not die out completely is people’s increasing appreciation oftheir 3. This has beenencouraged through programmes of language classes for children and through ‘apprentice’schemes, in which the endangered language is used as the medium of instructionto teach people a 4.Some speakers of endangered languages have even produced writing systems inorder to help secure the survival of their mother tongue.
Answer key: 1. isolation   2. economic globalisation / globalizaation /socio-economic pressures   3. culturalidentity    4. traditional skill
题目解析:
Questions1—4
  ●题目类型:SUMMARY
  ●题目解析:
  本题基本上是对整篇文章的总结,建议先做,顺便把文章浏览一遍。
  
题号
  
定位词
题解
l
6800/variety of  language /  geographical
第三段第一句话
  
现在全世界大概有6800种语言,这种丰富的语言多样性主要来自于地理上的…
  
答案:isolation
2
government/huge decrease
第五段中部
  
…the deadliest weapon is not government policy but economic  pressures.…
  
本题目要看清楚问的是语言消失的原因,and表示并列,因此空中应该填与government initiatives对等的原因,而文中第五段前半部分提到政府政策对语言的影响,但是科学家们也指出,真正致命的原因是社会经济压力。答案:economic globalization / globalization / socio-economic pressures注意:不能写成pressure
3
Increasing appreciation / language classes / ‘apprentice’
第七段第二句话But a growing interest in…
  
本题与其用空所在的这句话去定位,不如寻找空后面加了引号的apprentice。第3空所填词一定在引号前方,再找到language classes, 然后寻找increasing的同义词,结果就发现了第二句当中的growing, 而根据语法,该空要填一个名词或名词词组,因此很容易就找到了cultural
  
题号
  
定位词
题解
identity。
  
答案:cultural identity
4
  ‘apprentice’ / teach / a
第七段中后部a Native American tongue...
  
继续用‘apprentice’做为定位词,该句话的意思是在学徒计划中,濒危语言被用来作为载体来教授人们一种…,文中的“学习”与“教授”在意思上有关联,而不定冠词a的要填一个专有名词。
  
答案是:traditional skill
l  并列/类比
A andb
a, b, andc.
Or=否定句
(hardly ,barely, rarely)
lack a or b
He, as well asother children, is
as well / …too 句尾
can also / also can
Both…and…
Not only…but also
Neither…nor…
Either…or… 谓语
Not A but B
Less A than B
与其不如
A in line with B
A alongside B
因果
Thereby / Therefore
…Hence   /…thus
As aresult, …
As a consequence
Lead (up) to
Give rise to
Contribute to
动词:
Create 创造 conceive 孕育
invent = innovate 创新
devise =design=style 设计
generate 产生
breed产生;滋生
trigger 引起
spark 激发(灵感)
evoke唤起awareness
arouse 激起(愤怒)
ignite 点燃
rekindle 重燃
Contribute to 促成
导致
Result in 结果
原因
Be attributed to
归因于
Result from因为
Thanks to多亏;幸好
Owing to  由于
due to 句中
On account of 因为
Derive from 源自
Stem from 源自

示范例题:
THE LITTLE ICEAGE
  A  Thisbook will provide a detailed examination of the Little Ice Age and otherclimatic shifts, but, before I embark on that, let me provide a historicalcontext. We tend to think of climate - as opposed to weather - as somethingunchanging, yet humanity has been at the mercy of climate change for its entireexistence, with at least eight glacial episodes in the past 730, 000 years. Ourancestors adapted to the universal but irregular global warming since the endof the last great Ice Age, around 10, 000years ago, with dazzling opportunism.They developed strategies for surviving harsh drought cycles, decades of heavyrainfall or unaccustomed cold; adopted agriculture and stock-raising, whichrevolutionised human life; and founded the world's first pre-industrialcivilisations in Egypt, Mesopotamia and the Americas. But the price of suddenclimate change, in famine, disease and suffering, was often high.
  B  TheLittle Ice Age lasted from roughly 1300 until the middle of the nineteenthcentury. Only two centuries ago, Europe experienced a cycle of bitterly coldwinters; mountain glaciers in the Swiss Alps were the lowest in recordedmemory, and pack ice surrounded Iceland for much of the year. The climaticevents of the Little Ice Age did more than help shape the modern world. Theyare the deeply important context for the current unprecedented global warming.The Little Ice Age was far from a deep freeze, however; rather an irregularseesaw of rapid climatic shifts, few lasting more than a quarter-century, drivenby complex and still little understood interactions between the atmosphere andthe ocean. The seesaw brought cycles of intensely cold winters and easterlywinds, then switched abruptly to years of heavy spring and early summer rains,mild winters, and frequent Atlantic storms, or to periods of droughts, lightnortheasterly winds, and summer heat waves.
  C Reconstructing the climate changes of the past is extremely difficult,because systematic weather observations began only a few centuries ago, in Europeand North America. Records from India and tropical Africa are even more recent.For the time before records began, we have only 'proxy records' reconstructedlargely from tree rings and ice cores, supplemented by a few incomplete writtenaccounts. We now have hundreds of tree-ring records from throughout thenorthern hemisphere, and many from south of the equator, too, amplified with agrowing body of temperature data from ice cores drilled in Antarctica,Greenland, the Peruvian Andes, and other locations. We are close to a knowledgeof annual summer and winter temperature variations over much of the northernhemisphere going back 600 years.
  D  Thisbook is a narrative history of climatic shifts during the past ten centuries,and some of the ways in which people in Europe adapted to them. Part Onedescribes the Medieval Warm Period, roughly 900 to 1200. During these threecenturies, Norse voyagers from Northern Europe explored northern seas, settledGreenland, and visited North America. It was not a time of uniform warmth, forthen, as always since the Great Ice Age, there were constant shifts in rainfalland temperature. Mean European temperatures were about the same as today,perhaps slightly cooler.
  E  Itis known that the Little Ice Age cooling began in Greenland and the Arctic inabout 1200. As the Arctic ice pack spread southward, Norse voyages to the westwere rerouted into the open Atlantic, then ended altogether. Storminessincreased in the North Atlantic and North Sea. Colder, much wetter weatherdescended on Europe between 1315 and 1319, when thousands perished in acontinent-wide famine. By 1400, the weather had become decidedly moreunpredictable and stormier, with sudden shifts and lower temperatures thatculminated in the cold decades of the late sixteenth century. Fish were a vitalcommodity in growing towns and cities, where food supplies were a constantconcern. Dried cod and herring were already the staples of the European fishtrade, but changes in water temperatures forced fishing fleets to work furtheroffshore. The Basques, Dutch, and English developed the first offshore fishingboats adapted to a colder and stormier Atlantic. A gradual agriculturalrevolution in northern Europe stemmed from concerns over food supplies at a timeof rising populations. The revolution involved intensive commercial farming andthe growing of animal fodder on land not previously used for crops. Theincreased productivity from farmland made some countries self-sufficient ingrain and livestock and offered effective protection against famine.
  F Global temperatures began to rise slowly after 1850, with the beginningof the Modern Warm Period. There was a vast migration from Europe byland-hungry farmers and others, to which the famine caused by the Irish potatoblight contributed, to North America, Australia, New Zealand, and southernAfrica. Millions of hectares of forest and woodland fell before the newcomers'axes between 1850 and 1890, as intensive European farming methods expandedacross the world. The unprecedented land clearance released vast quantities ofcarbon dioxide into the atmosphere, triggering for the first time humanlycaused global warming. Temperatures climbed more rapidly in the twentiethcentury as the use of fossil fuels proliferated and greenhouse gas levelscontinued to soar. The rise has been even steeper since the early 1980s. TheLittle Ice Age has given way to a new climatic regime, marked by prolonged andsteady warming. At the same time, extreme weather events like Category 5hurricanes are becoming more frequent.
  
Questions 18-22
  Complete the summary using the list of words,A-I, below.
  Write the correct letter, A-I, in boxes 18-22on your answer sheet.
Weather duringthe Little Ice Age
  Documentation of past weather conditions islimited: our main sources of knowledge of conditions in the distant past are 18…………………… and 19 …………………… . We can deduce that the Little Ice Age was a time of20 ……………………, rather than of consistent freezing. Within it there were some periodsof very cold winters, others of 21 …………………… and heavy rain, and yet others thatsaw 22 …………………… with no rain at all.
  
  A   climatic shies   B  ice cores      C   tree rings
  
  D   glaciers        E  interactions   F   weather observations
  
  G   heat waves     H  storms        I  written accounts
  
试题解析:
  
题号
  
定位词
文中对应点
题目解析
18
  
pastsource of,
  
knowledge
C段:
  
For the  time before records beganwe have only ‘proxy records’ reconstructed  largely from tree rings and ice cores….
此题定位较难,在C段中扫描到第三行才会发现past的反义词recent,但也说明从其后开始就是答案的出处。空格中所填词应为对于过去气候认识的来源。故此题答案为BC
  
19
18
18
此空所填词为另一种对于过去气候认识的来源,且与18题为并列关系。故此题答案为BC
20
  
consistent freezing
B段:
  
The Little  Ice Age was far from a deep freeze. howeverrather an irregular seesaw of  rapid climatic shifts
此题定位很难,出现了严重的乱序。定位词对应B段定位句中的deep freeze。空格中所填词应与consistent freezing的意思相反(rather than)。故此题答案为A
21
  
cold winters
B段:
  
The  seesaw brought cycles of intensely cold winters and easterly windsthen switched abruptly to years  of heavy spring and early summer rainsmild wintersand frequent Adantic stormsor to periods of droughtslight northeasterly windsand summer heat waves.
此题按照顺序原则较易定位。空格中所填词应与heavy rains形成并列。故此题答案为H
22
21
21
此空所填词为with no rain所修饰的对象,其对应文中的droughts。通过扫描剩余选项以及文中的对应句,很容易得到答案。故此题答案为G
LectureEight
单项选择题
必须知道的规则:
l  一段一个按顺序出题
l  考点集中在段落中后部
but / however
1.观察此题在所有大题中的位置,粗略定位;
2确定第一小题位置,利用数字/时间/百分比/大写/连字符
职业/属性/身份词
3读题干及个选项,排除混淆项
·       带钱字的选项一般不是正确选项:
Money
expensive
funding
Financial
economic
Commercial
·       有同样的关键字的TWINS中必有一个是正确答案
·       过于绝对的选项要去掉
·       小心单个数字/百分比作选项的题
4回文中找对应句与剩余选项比较,同义词替换,选择正确答案。
如果无法判断,则马上做下一题。






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发表于 2016-10-10 18:33 |显示全部楼层
Cam5 T1 P3.
The Truth about the Environment
For many environmentalists, the world seems to be getting worse. They have developed a hit-list of our main fears: that natural resources are running out; that the population is ever growing, leaving less and less to eat; that species are becoming extinct in vast numbers, and that the planet’s air and water are becoming ever more polluted.

But a quick look at the facts shows a different picture. First, energy and other natural resources have become more abundant, not less so, since the book ‘The Limits to Growth’ was published in 1972 by a group of scientists. Second, more food is now produced per head of the world’s population than at any time in history. Fewer people are starving. Third, although species are indeed becoming extinct, only about 0.7% of them are expected to disappear in the next 50 years, not 25-50%, as has so often been predicted. And finally, most forms of environmental pollution either appear to have been exaggerated, or are transient – associated with the early phases of industrialization and therefore best cured not by restricting economic growth, but by accelerating it. One form of pollution – the release of greenhouse gases that causes global warming – does appear to be a phenomenon that is going to extend well into our future, but its total impact is unlikely to pose a devastating problem. A bigger problem may well turn out to be an inappropriate response to it.

Yet opinion polls suggest that many people nurture the belief that environmental standards are declining and four factors seem to cause this disjunction between perception and reality.

One is the lopsidedness built into scientific research. Scientific funding goes mainly to areas with many problems. That may be wise policy, but it will also create an impression that many more potential problems exist than is the case.

Secondly, environmental groups need to be noticed by the mass media. They also need to keep the money rolling in. Understandably, perhaps, they sometimes overstate their arguments. In 1997, for example, the World Wide Fund for Nature issued a press release entitled: ‘Two thirds of the world’s forests lost forever’. The truth turns out to be nearer 20%.

Though these groups are run overwhelmingly by selfless folk, they nevertheless share many of the characteristics of other lobby groups. That would matter less if people applied the same degree of scepticism to environmental lobbying as they do to lobby groups in other fields. A trade organisation arguing for, say, weaker pollution controls is instantly seen as self-interested. Yet a green organisation opposing such a weakening is seen as altruistic, even if an impartial view of the controls in question might suggest they are doing more harm than good.

A third source of confusion is the attitude of the media. People are clearly more curious about bad news than good. Newspapers and broadcasters are there to provide what the public wants. That, however, can lead to significant distortions of perception. An example was America’s encounter with El Nino in 1997 and 1998. This climatic phenomenon was accused of wrecking tourism, causing allergies, melting the ski-slopes and causing 22 deaths. However, according to an article in the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, the damage it did was estimated at US$4 billion but the benefits amounted to some US$19 billion. These came from higher winter temperatures (which saved an estimated 850 lives, reduced heating costs and diminished spring floods caused by meltwaters).

The fourth factor is poor individual perception. People worry that the endless rise in the amount of stuff everyone throws away will cause the world to run out of places to dispose of waste. Yet, even if America’s trash output continues to rise as it has done in the past, and even if the American population doubles by 2100, all the rubbish America produces through the entire 21st century will still take up only one-12,000th of the area of the entire United States.

So what of global warming? As we know, carbon dioxide emissions are causing the planet to warm. The best estimates are that the temperatures will rise by 2-3℃ in this century, causing considerable problems, at a total cost of US$5,000 billion.

Despite the intuition that something drastic needs to be done about such a costly problem, economic analyses clearly show it will be far more expensive to cut carbon dioxide emissions radically than to pay the costs of adaptation to the increased temperatures. A model by one of the main authors of the United Nations Climate Change Panel shows how an expected temperature increase of 2.1 degrees in 2100 would only be diminished to an increase of 1.9 degrees. Or to put it another way, the temperature increase that the planet would have experienced in 2094 would be postponed to 2100.

So this does not prevent global warming, but merely buys the world six years. Yet the cost of reducing carbon dioxide emissions, for the United States alone, will be higher than the cost of solving the world’s single, most pressing health problem: providing universal access to clean drinking water and sanitation. Such measures would avoid 2 million deaths every year, and prevent half a billion people from becoming seriously ill.

It is crucial that we look at the facts if we want to make the best possible decisions for the future. It may be costly to be overly optimistic – but more costly still to be too pessimistic.


Questions 33-37
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C, or D.
Write your answers in boxes 33-37 on your answer sheet.
33        What aspect of scientific research does the writer express concern about in paragraph 4?
A        the need to produce results
B        the lack of financial support
C        the selection of areas to research
D        the desire to solve every research problem
34        The writer quotes from the Worldwide Fund for Nature to illustrate how
A        influential the mass media can be.
B        effective environmental groups can be.
C        the mass media can help groups raise funds.
D        environmental groups can exaggerate their claims.
35        What is the writer’s main point about lobby groups in paragraph 6?
A        Some are more active than others.
B        Some are better organised than others.
C        Some receive more criticism than others.
D        Some support more important issues than others.
36        The writer suggests that newspapers print items that are intended to
A        educate readers.
B        meet their readers’ expectations.
C        encourage feedback from readers.
D        mislead readers.
37        What does the writer say about America’s waste problem?
A        It will increase in line with population growth.
B        It is not as important as we have been led to believe.
C        It has been reduced through public awareness of the issues.
D        It is only significant in certain areas of the country.


Answer key: 33. C   34. D   35. C   36. B   37. B

题目解析:
Questions 33 — 3 7
  ●题型:Multiple Choice
  ●题目解析:
题号        定位词        题解
33        paragraph 4        题目:在第四段中,作者提出了对下列哪个科研领域的关注:
A对成果的追求
B缺乏资金支持
C对研究领域的选择
D试图解决所有问题的想法
文中对应点:第四段第二句
Scientific funding goes mainly to areas with many problems. That may be wise policy, but it will…
正确答案:C
34        Worldwide Fund for Nature        题目:作者引用世界自然基金的数据是为了说明:
A媒体的力量多么巨大
B环保组织工作很有效
C媒体可以帮助组织筹集资金
D环保组织可能会夸大事实
文中对应点:第五段
Understandably, perhaps, they sometimes overstate their arguments.
正确答案:D
35        paragraph 6        题目:文中第六段作者对游说团体的看法是:
A某些团体比较活跃
B有些团体的组织管理比较好
C有些团体遭到更多的批判
D有些团体关注更为重要的问题
文中对应点:第六段
That would matter less if people applied the same degree of skepticism to environmental lobbying as they do to lobby groups in other fields.
正确答案:C
题号        定位词        题解
36        newspaper print        题目:作者认为报纸等新闻出版物应该:
A教育读者
B满足读者的需求
C鼓励读者反馈意见
D误导读者
文中对应点:第七段
Newspaper and broadcasters are there to provide what the public wants.
正确答案:B
37        America        题目:作者对美国垃圾问题的观点是:
A垃圾问题会随着人口增长而加剧
B垃圾问题没有我们想像得严重
C由于公众的关注,垃圾问题已经减轻了
D垃圾问题只在某些地区比较严重
文中对应点:第八段
Yet, even if America’s trash output continues to rise as it has done in the past, and even if the American. population doubles by 2100, all the rubbish America produces through the entire 21st century will still take up only one-12,000th of the area of the entire United States.
正确答案:B


多项选择题
解题法则:
1.        一般对应文章中部1-3段
2.        注意并列连接词 and / or
3.        注意罗列连接词 one / another / the other /next /
4.        去掉过于绝对的选项
5.        同义词替换也很重要
6.        如果实在搞不定,留到所有题目做完再做


示范例题:

                                                       Johnson’s Dictionary
  For the century before Johnson’s Dictionary was published in 1775, there had been concern about the state of the English language. There was no standard way of speaking or writing and no agreement as to the best way of bringing some order to the chaos of English spelling. Dr Johnson provided the solution.
  There had, of course, been dictionaries in the past, the first of these being a little book of some 120 pages, compiled by a certain Robert Cawdray, published in 1604 under the title A Table Alphabeticall ‘of hard usuall English wordes’. Like the various dictionaries that came after it during the seventeenth century, Cawdray’s tended to concentrate on ‘scholarly’ words; one function of the dictionary was to enable its student to convey an impression of fine learning.
  Beyond the practical need to make order out of chaos, the rise of dictionaries is associated with the rise of the English middle class, who were anxious to define and circumscribe the various worlds to conquer- lexical as well as social and commercial. It is highly appropriate that Dr Samuel Johnson, the very model of an eighteenth-century literary man, as famous in his own time as in ours, should have published his Dictionary at the very beginning of the heyday of the middle class.
  Johnson was a poet and critic who raised common sense to the heights of genius. His approach to the problems that had worried writers throughout the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries was intensely practical. Up until his time, the task of producing a dictionary on such a large scale had seemed impossible without the establishment of an academy to make decisions about right and wrong usage. Johnson decided he did not need an academy to settle arguments about language; he would write a dictionary himself; and he would do it single-handed. Johnson signed the contract for the Dictionary with the bookseller Robert Dosley at a breakfast held at the Golden Anchor Inn near Holborn Bar on 18 June 1764. He was to be paid £1,575 in instalments, and from this he took money to rent 17 Gough Square, in which he set up his ‘dictionary workshop’.
  James Boswell, his biographer, described the garret where Johnson worked as ‘fitted up like a counting house’ with a long desk running down the middle at which the copying clerks would work standing up.
  Johnson himself was stationed on a rickety chair at an ‘old crazy deal table’ surrounded by a chaos of borrowed books. He was also helped by six assistants, two of whom died whilst the Dictionary was still in preparation.
  The work was immense; filling about eighty large notebooks (and without a library to hand), Johnson wrote the definitions of over 40,000 words, and illustrated their many meanings with some 114,000 quotations drawn from English writing on every subject, from the Elizabethans to his own time. He did not expect to achieve complete originality. Working to a deadline, he had to draw on the best of all previous dictionaries, and to make his work one of heroic synthesis. In fact, it was very much more. Unlike his predecessors, Johnson treated English very practically, as a
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living language, with many different shades of meaning. He adopted his definitions on the principle of English common law-according to precedent. After its publication, his Dictionary was not seriously rivalled for over a century.
  After many vicissitudes the Dictionary was finally published on 15 April 1775. It was instantly recognised as a landmark throughout Europe. ‘This very noble work,’ wrote the leading Italian lexicographer, ‘will be a perpetual monument of Fame to the Author, an Honour to his own Country in particular, and a general Benefit to the republic of Letters throughout Europe.’ The fact that Johnson had taken on the Academies of Europe and matched them (everyone knew that forty French academics had taken forty years to produce the first French national dictionary) was cause for much English celebration.
  Johnson had worked for nine years, ‘with little assistance of the learned, and without any patronage of the great; not in the soft obscurities of retirement, or under the shelter of academic bowers, but amidst inconvenience and distraction, in sickness and in sorrow’. For all its faults and eccentricities his two-volume work is a masterpiece and a landmark in his own words, ‘setting the orthography, displaying the analogy, regulating the structures, and ascertaining the significations of English words’. It is the cornerstone of Standard English, an achievement which, in James Boswell’s words, ‘conferred stability on the language of his country’.
  The Dictionary, together with his other writing, made Johnson famous and so well esteemed that his friends were able to prevail upon King George Ⅲ to offer him a pension. From then on, he was to become the Johnson of folklore.
  


Questions 1-3
  Choose THREE letters A-H.
  Write your answers in boxes 1-3 on your answer sheet.
  NB  Your answers may be given in any order.
  Which THREE of the following statements are true of Johnson’s Dictionary?
  A  It avoided all scholarly words.
  B  It was the only English dictionary in general use for 200 years.
  C  It was famous because of the large number of people involved.
  D  It focused mainly on language from contemporary texts.
  E  There was a time limit for its completion.
  F  It ignored work done by previous dictionary writers.
  G  It took into account subtleties of meaning.
  H  Its definitions were famous for their originality.

题目解析:
Questions 1—3
  ●题型:Multiple Choice
  ●题目解析:本题属于选择题中的多选题,一般都会指定要选几个答案。
题号        翻译        题解
A        约翰逊的字典避开了所有学术词汇。        all太绝对,所以不选
B        约翰逊的字典是惟一一本被广泛使用了二百年的字典。        only太绝对,不会入选
C        约翰逊的字典之所以出名是因为参与编纂的人员众多。        第四段:
Johnson decided he did not need an academy to settle arguments…一句证明约翰逊并未招聘很多人员
D        约翰逊字典主要集中于当代文本中的语言。        第六段:
…and illustrated their many meanings with some 1 14,000 quotations drawn from the Elizabethans to his own time.

题号        翻译        题解
E        字典完工有时限。        第六段:
Working to a deadline…
F        约翰逊字典忽略了以前字典编纂者的工作。        第六段:
…he had to draw on the best ofall previous  dictionaries.
与原文矛盾,故不选
G        第六段:约翰逊字典讲述了词义的细微差别。        Unlike his predecessors, Johnson treated English very practically, as a living    language, with many different shades of meaning.
H        第六段:约翰逊字典的解释以原创性著称。        He did not expect to achieve complete originality.
与原文矛盾,故不选



The Nature of Genius
  There has always been an interest in geniuses and prodigies. The word 'genius', from the Latin gens (= family) and the term 'genius', meaning 'begetter', comes from the early Roman cult of a divinity as the head of the family. In its earliest form, genius was concerned with the ability of the head of the family, the paterfamilias, to perpetuate himself. Gradually, genius came to represent a person's characteristics and thence an individual's highest attributes derived from his 'genius' or guiding spirit. Today, people still look to stars or genes, astrology or genetics, in the hope of finding the source of exceptional abilities or personal characteristics.

  The concept of genius and of gifts has become part of our folk culture, and attitudes are ambivalent towards them. We envy the gifted and mistrust them. In the mythology of giftedness, it is popularly believed that if people are talented in one area, they must be defective in another, that intellectuals are impractical, that prodigies burn too brightly too soon and burn out, that gifted people are eccentric, that they are physical weaklings, that there's a thin line between genius and madness, that genius runs in families, that the gifted are so clever they don't need special help, that giftedness is the same as having a high IQ, that some races are more intelligent or musical or mathematical than others, that genius goes unrecognised and unrewarded, that adversity makes men wise or that people with gifts have a responsibility to use them. Language has been enriched with such terms as 'highbrow', 'egghead', 'blue-stocking', 'wiseacre', 'know-all', 'boffin' and, for many, 'intellectual' is a term of denigration.

  The nineteenth century saw considerable interest in the nature of genius, and produced not a few studies of famous prodigies. Perhaps for us today, two of the most significant aspects of most of these studies of genius are the frequency with which early encouragement and teaching by parents and tutors had beneficial effects on the intellectual, artistic or musical development of the children but caused great difficulties of adjustment later in their lives, and the frequency with which abilities went unrecognised by teachers and schools. However, the difficulty with the evidence produced by these studies, fascinating as they are in collecting together anecdotes and apparent similarities and exceptions, is that they are not what we would today call norm-referenced. In other words, when, for instance, information is collated about early illnesses, methods of upbringing, schooling, etc. , we must also take into account information from other historical sources about how common or exceptional these were at the time. For instance, infant mortality was high and life expectancy much shorter than today, home tutoring was common in the families of the nobility and wealthy, bullying and corporal punishment were common at the best independent schools and, for the most part, the cases studied were members of the privileged classes. It was only with the growth of paediatrics and psychology in the twentieth century that studies could be carried out on a more objective, if still not always very scientific, basis.
  Geniuses, however they are defined, are but the peaks which stand out through the mist of history and are visible to the particular observer from his or her particular vantage point. Change the observers and the vantage points, clear away some of the mist, and a different lot of peaks appear. Genius is a term we apply to those whom we recognise for their outstanding achievements and who stand near the end of the continuum of human abilities which reaches back through the mundane and mediocre to the incapable. There is still much truth in Dr Samuel Johnson's observation, 'The true genius is a mind of large general powers, accidentally determined to some particular direction'. We may disagree with the 'general', for we doubt if all musicians of genius could have become scientists of genius or vice versa, but there is no doubting the accidental determination which nurtured or triggered their gifts into those channels into which they have poured their powers so successfully. Along the continuum of abilities are hundreds of thousands of gifted men and women, boys and girls.
  What we appreciate, enjoy or marvel at in the works of genius or the achievements of prodigies are the manifestations of skills or abilities which are similar to, but so much superior to, our own. But that their minds are not different from our own is demonstrated by the fact that the hard-won discoveries of scientists like Kepler or Einstein become the commonplace knowledge of schoolchildren and the once outrageous shapes and colours of an artist like Paul Klee so soon appear on the fabrics we wear. This does not minimise the supremacy of their achievements, which outstrip our own as the sub-four-minute milers outstrip our jogging.
  To think of geniuses and the gifted as having uniquely different brains is only reasonable if we accept that each human brain is uniquely different. The purpose of instruction is to make us even more different from one another, and in the process of being educated we can learn from the achievements of those more gifted than ourselves. But before we try to emulate geniuses or encourage our children to do so we should note that some of the things we learn from them may prove unpalatable. We may envy their achievements and fame, but we should also recognise the price they may have paid in terms of perseverance, single-mindedness, dedication, restrictions on their personal lives, the demands upon their energies and time, and how often they had to display great courage to preserve their integrity or to make their way to the top.
  Genius and giftedness are relative descriptive terms of no real substance. We may, at best, give them some precision by defining them and placing them in a context but, whatever we do, we should never delude ourselves into believing that gifted children or geniuses are different from the rest of humanity, save in the degree to which they have developed the performance of their abilities.
  Questions 14-18
  Choose FIVE letters, A-K.
  Write the correct letters in boxes 14-18 on your answer sheet.
  NB   Your answers may be given in any order.
  Below are listed some popular beliefs about genius and giftedness.
  Which FIVE of these beliefs are reported by the writer of the text?

  A  Truly gifted people are talented in all areas.
  B  The talents of geniuses are soon exhausted.
  C  Gifted people should use their gifts.
  D  A genius appears once in every generation.
  E   Genius can be easily destroyed by discouragement.
  F   Genius is inherited.
  G  Gifted people are very hard to live with.
  H   People never appreciate true genius.
  I   Geniuses are natural leaders.
  J   Gifted people develop their greatness through difficulties.
  K  Genius will always reveal itself.

试题解析:
题目        题目翻译        试题解析
A        真正的天才在各个领域都有才华。        与…it is popularly believed that if people are talented in one area,they must be defective in another…相矛盾。

B        天才的才能会很快耗尽。        与…prodigies burn too brightly too soon and burn out这句话一致;burn out是“耗尽”的意思,等同于exhausted。故选项B正确。

C        天才应该应用他们的天赋。        对应文中…people with gifts have a responsibility to use them。故选项C 正确。
D        每代人中出一个天才。        文中提到…that genius runs in families,指出天赋是遗传的,但是并没有精确到每一代人就出一个天才。题目属于过度推断。

E        天才会被挫折轻易摧毁。        其实这一点在文章中没有提到,如果非要加以联系的话,可能…that
  adversity makes men wise,逆境出英才这句话会产生误导作用,但并不等同于英才为挫折所毁。

F        天赋是遗传的。        文中说…genius runs in ramifies,指天才是遗传的。看到这个选项,就更能体会选项D的错误所在了。故选项F正确。
G        天才很难相处。        有的考生对文中eccentric这个词比较敏感,这个词是指人行为“古怪的”,但是并不等同于难相处。显然,这道题在混淆概念。词汇量大但又记得不够精准的同学可能会在这里吃亏。
H        人们从不欣赏真正的天才。        对应文中的…genius goes unrecognised and unrewarded,即天才不受认同也得不到相应的回报,故选项H正确。
I        天才是天生的领导者。        文中没有提到有关“领导者”的内容。
J        天才于困境中实现卓越。        对应文中的…adversity makes men wise,故选项J正确。
K        天赋总能显现出来。        完全没有提到。















Lecture Nine
True/False/Not Given题

解题方法:
1. 浏览该题型大题数量及每大题中小题数量
3—10题
2. 读题目,翻译,找出题中两点
第一点:定位词
*特殊词:数字时间百分比
*表示职业属性身份的名词
第二点:关键字
名词/形容词
3.用定位词回文章中定位
牢记法则:
一段0-3个题目按顺序
每题对应一或两句话,最多一段话
4.读清楚文中语句,翻译,比照关键字
若是同义词关系,答案选True
若是反义词关系,答案选False
若暂时无法判断,则暂定为Not Given
5.判断答案,一般一道题目要经过两次判断才能决定答案;若两次判断后仍然无法决定的,则应该先完成下一题。


示范练习:
Para 1        The need for a satisfactory education is more important than ever before. Nowadays, without a qualification from a reputable school or university, the odds of landing that plum job advertised in the paper are considerably shortened. Moreover, one's present level of education could fall well short of future career requirements.

Para 2        It is no secret that competition is the driving force behind the need to obtain increasingly higher qualifications. In the majority of cases, the urge to upgrade is no longer the result of an insatiable thirst for knowledge. The pressure is coming from within the workplace to compete with ever more qualified job applicants, and in many occupations one must now battle with colleagues in the reshuffle for the position one already holds.

Para 3        Striving to become better educated is hardly a new concept. Wealthy parents have always been willing to spend the vast amounts of extra money necessary to send their children to schools with a perceived educational edge. Working adults have long attended night schools and refresher courses. Competition for employment has been around since the curse of working for a living began. Is the present situation so very different to that of the past?

Para 4        The difference now is that the push is universal and from without as well as within. A student at secondary school receiving low grades is no longer as easily accepted by his or her peers as was once the case. Similarly, in the workplace, unless employees are engaged in part-time study, they may be frowned upon by their employers and peers and have difficulty even standing still. In fact, in these cases, the expectation is for careers to go backwards and earning capacity to take an appreciable nosedive.

Para 5        At first glance, the situation would seem to be laudable; a positive response to the exhortation by a former Prime Minister, Bob Hawke, for Australia to become the `clever country'. Yet there are serious ramifications according to at least one educational psychologist. Dr Brendan Gatsby has caused some controversy in academic circles by suggesting that a bias towards what he terms ‘paper’ excellence might cause more problems than it is supposed to solve. Gatsby raises a number of issues that affect the individual as well as society in general.

Para 6        Firstly, he believes the extra workload involved is resulting in abnormally high stress levels in both students at secondary school and adults studying after working hours. Secondly, skills which might be more relevant to the undertaking of a sought-after job are being overlooked by employers interviewing candidates without qualifications on paper. These two areas of concern for the individual are causing physical and emotional stress respectively.

Para 7        Gatsby also argues that there are attitudinal changes within society to the exalted role education now plays in determining how the spoils of working life are distributed. Individuals of all ages are being driven by social pressures to achieve academic success solely for monetary considerations instead of for the joy of enlightenment. There is the danger that some universities are becoming degree factories with an attendant drop in standards. Furthermore, our education system may be rewarding doggedness above creativity; the very thing Australians have been encouraged to avoid. But the most undesirable effect of this academic paper chase, Gatsby says, is the disadvantage that ‘user pays’ higher education confers on the poor, who invariably lose out to the more financially favoured.

Para 8        Naturally, although there is agreement that learning can cause stress, Gatsby's comments regarding university standards have been roundly criticised as alarmist by most educationists who point out that, by any standard of measurement, Australia's
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education system overall, at both secondary and tertiary levels, is equal to that of any in the world.


TRUE/FALSE/NOT/GIVEN
a. It is impossible these days to get a good job without a qualification        T        F        NG
from a respected institution.
b. Most people who upgrade their qualifications do so for the joy         T        F        NG
    of learning.
c. In some jobs, the position you hold must be reapplied for.        T        F        NG
d. Some parents spend extra on their children's education because T        F        NG
of the prestige attached to certain schools.
e. According to the text, students who performed badly at school         T        F        NG
used to be accepted by their classmates.
f.  Employees who do not undertake extra study may find their         T        F        NG
salary decreased by employers.
g. Australians appear to have responded to the call by a former         T        F        NG
Prime Minister to become better qualified.
h. Australia's education system is equal to any in the world in the opinion         of most educationists.                    T  F  NG

何为TRUE:
1.        同义词直接替换:
题目:
In some jobs, the position you hold must be reapplied for.
文章:
              The pressure is coming from within the workplace to compete with ever more qualified job applicants, and in many occupations one must now battle with colleagues in the reshuffle for the position one already holds.
               Reapply  = reshuffle
2.        文中打比方,题中直接说
root cause 根本原因 fundamental reason
题目:
Australians appear to have responded to the call by a former Prime Minister to become better qualified.
文中:
At first glance, the situation would seem to be laudable; a positive response to the exhortation by a former Prime Minister, Bob Hawke, for Australia to become the `clever country'.

3.        文中举例子, 题中推结论
题中:
According to the text, students who performed badly at school used to be accepted by their classmates.
文章:
A student at secondary school receiving low grades is no longer as easily accepted by his or her peers as was once the case.

Cam4t2p2 第19题
题目:
In the past, Australians had a higher opinion of doctors than they do today.
文中:
‘A better educated and less accepting public has become disillusioned with the experts in general, and increasingly sceptical about science and empirically based knowledge,’ they said. ‘The high standing of professionals, including doctors, has been eroded as a consequence.’



何为FALSE:
1.        反义词直接抵触:
题目:
Sydney is a quiet and graceful city.
文中:
Set amidst the graceful splendour of Sydney Harbour, presiding like a queen over the bustle and brashness of a modern city striving to forge a financial reputation in a tough commercial world, it is a reminder to all Australians of their deep and abiding love of all things cultural.

2.        文中打比方,题中直接说
题目:
Most people who upgrade their qualifications do so for the joy of learning.
文中:
In the majority of cases, the urge to upgrade is no longer the result of an insatiable thirst for knowledge.


3.        文中举例子,题中推知相反结论
题目:
                It is impossible these days to get a good job without a qualification from a   respected institution.
文中:
Nowadays, without a qualification from a reputable school or university, the odds of landing that plum job advertised in the paper are considerably shortened.









技巧型解题方法
题目出现下列词,一定选对应答案
答案        金词
False        Impossible / immediate
Only / single
Invariably
Already
Fact
Ignore
Best
True         Possible
Probable
Seem to / appear to
Not always
Not all
Not necessarily
Not Given        Better
More…than…
除了best以外的最高级


补充练习:
剑桥雅思题八 T1P2

AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL IN THE USA
  A  An accident that occurred in the skies over the Grand Canyon in 1956 resulted in the establishment of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to regulate and oversee the operation of aircraft in the skies over the United States, which were becoming quite congested. The resulting structure of air traffic control has greatly increased the safety of flight in the United States, and similar air traffic control procedures are also in place over much of the rest of the world.
  B  Rudimentary air traffic control (ATC) existed well before the Grand Canyon disaster. As early as the 1920s, the earliest air traffic controllers manually guided aircraft in the vicinity of the airports, using lights and flags, while beacons and flashing lights were placed along cross-country routes to establish the earliest airways. However, this purely visual system was useless in bad weather, and, by the 1930s, radio communication was coming into use for ATC. The first region to have something approximating today's ATC was New York City, with other major metropolitan areas following soon after.
  C  In the 1940s, ATC centres could and did take advantage of the newly developed radar and improved radio communication brought about by the Second World War, but the system remained rudimentary. It was only after the creation of the FAA that full-scale regulation of America's airspace took place, and this was fortuitous, for the advent of the jet engine suddenly resulted in a large number of very fast planes, reducing pilots' margin of error and practically demanding some set of rules to keep everyone well separated and operating safely in the air.
  D  Many people think that ATC consists of a row of controllers sitting in front of their radar screens at the nation's airports, telling arriving and departing traffic what to do. This is a very incomplete part of the picture. The FAA realised that the airspace over the United States would at any time have many different kinds of planes, flying for many different purposes, in a variety of weather conditions, and the same kind of structure was needed to accommodate all of them.
  E  To meet this challenge, the following elements were put into effect. First, ATC extends over virtually the entire United States. In general, from 365m above the ground and higher, the entire country is blanketed by controlled airspace. In certain areas, mainly near airports, controlled airspace extends down to 215m above the ground, and, in the immediate vicinity of an airport, all the way down to the surface. Controlled airspace is that airspace in which FAA regulations apply. Elsewhere, in uncontrolled airspace, pilots are bound by fewer regulations. In this way, the recreational pilot who simply wishes to go flying for a while without all the restrictions imposed by the FAA has only to stay in uncontrolled airspace, below 365m, while the pilot who does want the protection afforded by ATC can easily enter the controlled airspace.
  F  The FAA then recognised two types of operating environments. In good meteorological conditions, flying would be permitted under Visual Flight Rules (VFR), which suggests a strong reliance on visual cues to maintain an acceptable level of safety. Poor visibility necessitated a set of Instrumental Flight Rules (IFR), under which the pilot relied on altitude and navigational information provided by the plane's instrument panel to fly safely. On a clear day, a pilot in controlled airspace can choose a VFR or IFR flight plan, and the FAA regulations were devised in a way which accommodates both VFR and IFR operations in the same airspace. However, a pilot can only choose to fly IFR if they possess an instrument rating which is above and beyond the basic pilot's license that must also be held.
  G  Controlled airspace is divided into several different types, designated by letters of the alphabet. Uncontrolled airspace is designated Class F, while controlled airspace below 5, 490m above sea level and not in the vicinity of an airport is Class E. All airspace above 5, 490m is designated Class A. The reason for the division of Class E and Class A airspace stems from the type of planes operating in them. Generally, Class E airspace is where one finds general aviation aircraft (few of which can climb above 5, 490m anyway), and commercial turboprop aircraft. Above 5, 490m is the realm of the heavy jets, since jet engines operate more efficiently at higher altitudes. The difference between Class E and A airspace is that in Class A, all operations are IFR, and pilots must be instrument-rated, that is, skilled and licensed in aircraft instrumentation. This is because ATC control of the entire space is essential. Three other types of airspace, Classes D, C and B, govern the vicinity of airports. These correspond roughly to small municipal, medium-sized metropolitan and major metropolitan airports respectively, and encompass an increasingly rigorous set of regulations. For example, all a VFR pilot has to do to enter Class C airspace is establish two-way radio contact with ATC. No explicit permission from ATC to enter is needed, although the pilot must continue to obey all regulations governing VFR flight. To enter Class B airspace, such as on approach to a major metropolitan airport, an explicit ATC clearance is required. The private pilot who cruises without permission into this airspace risks losing their license.



Questions 20-26
  Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2?
  In boxes 20-26 on your answer sheet, write
  
         TRUE          if the statement agrees with the information
  FALSE         if the statement contradicts the information
  NOT GIVEN     if there is no information on this

  20  The FAA was created as a result of the introduction of the jet engine.
  21  Air Traffic Control started after the Grand Canyon crash in 1956.
  22  Beacons and flashing lights are still used by ATC today.
  23  Some improvements were made in radio communication during World War II.
  24  Class F airspace is airspace which is below 365m and not near airports.
  25 All aircraft in Class E airspace must use IFR.
  26 A pilot entering Class C airspace is flying over an average-sized city.

试题解析:
Questions 20-26
  •题日类型:TRUE/FALSE/NOT GIVEN
  •题目解析:
  20. The FAA was created as a result of the introduction of the jet engine.
参考译文        FAA是随着喷气式发动机的产生而产生的。
定位词        FAA
解题关键词        as a result of

文中对应点        A段首句:An accident that occurred in the skies over the Grand Canyon in 1956 resulted in the establishment of the Federal Aviation Administration(FAA)…
通过定位词可以迅速定位至第一段首句,由该句内容可知,FAA建立(establishment)原因为1956年的accident,与题干原因(jet engine)不一致。故此题答案为FALSE。
  21. Air Traffic Control started after the Grand Canyon crash in 1956.
参考译文        航空交通管制是在1956年的大峡谷空难后开始的。
定位词        AirTraffic Control,Grand Canyon
解题关键词        after

文中对应点        B段首句:Rudimentary air traffic control(ATC)existed well before the Grand Canyon disaster. 此题定位没有难度。定位句中的before与解题关键词after明显自相矛盾。故此题答案为FALSE。

  22. Beacons and flashing lights are still used by ATC today.
  参考译文        灯标和闪光灯至今仍被ATC使用。
  定位词        beacons and flashing lights
解题关键词        still used,today

  文中对应点        B段:…while beacons and flashing lights were placed along cross-country routes to establish the earliest airways.
此题的定位词在文中原词出现,按照顺序原则可以迅速定位。文中定位处仅指出beacons 和flashing lights当时的使用情况,对于题干中所指的如今的使用状况只字未提。故此题答案为NOT GIVEN。
23. Some improvements were made in radio communication during World War lI.
参考译文        在,二战期间无线电通讯技术取得了一些进展。
定位词        improvements,radio communication,World WarⅡ
解题关键词        during

文中对应点        C段:
…improved radio communication brought about by the Second World War. . .
此题定位很简单,定位句含义为“第二次世界大战催生出的……改进后的无线电通讯技术”,与题干含义无异。故此题答案为TRUE。
  24. Class F airspace is airspace which is below 365m and not near airPorts.
  参考译文        F级空域为365米以下的区间且离飞机场不近。
    定位词        Class F. 365m
解题关键词        below 365m,not neat airports
文中对应点        G段:
Uncontrolled airspace is designated Class F…
通过定位词Glass F可快速定位至此处,但是只能确定Class F为uncontrolled airspace,通过该短语及365m可继续定位于E段。E段:In general,from 365m above the ground and higher,the entire country is blanketed by controlled airspace. In certain areas,mainly nearairpons,controlled airspace extends down to 215m above the ground…
此句说明从365米往上的区间为controlled airspace,且在大部分near airporions的区域,215米以上的区间都是controlled airspace,因此可以逆推出uncontrolled airspace的情况。故此题答案为TRUE。
  25. All aircraft in Class E airspace must use IFR.
参考译文        E级空域的所有飞机必须使用仪表飞行规则。
定位词        Class E. IFR
解题关键词        all. must

文中对应点        G段:
The difference between Class E and A airspace is that in Class A,all operations are IFR,…
此题通过定位词能够迅速定位。定位句的含义为“E级和A级之间的区别在于A级领空中所有的操作都遵循仪表飞行规则”。显然题干信息与定位句内容矛盾。此题还可以按照绝对化词汇all和must来快速判定答案。故此题答案为FALSE。
  26. A pilot entering Class C airspace is flying over an average-sized city.
参考译文        进入C级空域的飞行员主要飞越中等规模的城市。
定位词        Class C
解题关键词        average-sized
文中对应点         G段:
Three other types of airspace,Classes D,c and B,govern the vicinity of airports. These correspond roughly to small municipal,medium-sized metropolitan and major metropolitan airports respectively…
译文:其他三个等级:D级、C级和B级用于管理机场附近的区域。这三个级别大致分别适用于小型城市、中等城市和大型城市的机场……此题通过定位词能够迅速定位。定位句中的medium-sized与题干中的average-sized属于同义转述。故此题答案为TRUE。
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